How Values ​​are Changed?

Discussed in previous topics explained briefly what are the values, how will instill or set and how they determine the behavior in humans. Still the question remains how the values are changed once established? To answer this question we must employ "The Theory of the Senergicones" of Walter H. Bruckman cited before and the "The Theory of the Cognitive Dissonance " of Leon Festinger.

 

 

Two Ways to Uninstall or Change a Value

 

At least two ways to uninstall or change a value can be identified:

 

1 Uninstalling a value using cognitive dissonance between values

 

2 Uninstalling a value using the repeated violation of the value

 

A value can be uninstalled or changed for another by facing the person who possesses it with other values that are inconsistent with the value in question and that, therefore, generate cognitive dissonance. Another way to uninstall a value is violating the value repeatedly. In the following topics we shall discuss both ways to uninstall a value.

 

 

Uninstalling a Value Through Cognitive Dissonance Between Values

 

The way in which changes are generated in values is something which is not clearly established in sociological theory. However, can be observed that when a negatively valued object is associated with another positively valued object it generated anxiety in the individual and, consequently, a trend develops that one of the objects change their valuation and adjustment to the valuation of the object with which it is associated.

 

The phenomenon is known as cognitive dissonance and was discovered by Leon Festinger.

 

Anxiety is an emotion or feeling, or unpleasant affective state for the individual. Therefore the individual is prompted to reduce or eliminate anxiety. The way to do consists of changing the valuation of one of the two objects with conflicting assessments so that anxiety will reduce or eliminate. The direction of change, that is, how people will react to the emotion or feeling or affective state known as anxiety varies from one person to another. This variation from one person to another in reaction or change direction will depend on the personality of each individual, other values of the individual and of the experience of every individual to life, etc.

 

The Festinger cognitive dissonance theory poses that people will experience anxiety when they are confronted with his those behaviors that are inconsistent or incongruent with their beliefs or values. People will also experience anxiety when they are confronted with beliefs or own values (cognitions) that are inconsistent with each other. That anxiety that generates the inconsistency between behavior, belief or mutually inconsistent values will exert pressure or trend in the individual so to change his behavior or beliefs or values so that they are consistent with each other.

 

 

Uninstalling a Value Using the Repeated Violation of the Value

 

We had pointed out in the previous topic that at least two ways to uninstall or change a value can be identified. We have just discussed the first way and move on to discuss the second.

 

The Senergicones Theory establishes that a value can be uninstalled through the experiment of violating the value repeatedly. In this theory we know that a value is installed in the psyche of the individual when the person experiences shame emotion to violate it and be discovered or when to violate without being discovered the person experiences emotion distress or anxiety or displeasure or discomfort.

 

For example, lying is an abstract object that is negatively valued. So someone please uninstall that value, all he have to do is lie repeatedly and try to be discovered in the lie. While most repeat violation of the value in this way, less shame will be experimenting. After repeating that behavior a number of times will no longer feel embarrassment or distress or anxiety, as the case may be. Once he get to that outcome the person will no longer have the value installed and can lie without feeling aversion. It may therefore lie whenever needed without being emotionally disturbed.

 

The pedophile behavior is an abstract object valued negatively. So someone please uninstall that value what he have to do is have sex with children several times and seek to be discovered. While most repeat violation of the value, less shame will be experimenting. After repeating the violation of the value a number of times he will stop of feel embarrassment or distress or anxiety. Once he get to that outcome the person will no longer have the installed value and may have sexual intercourse with children without feeling aversion. Therefore, he can enjoy them without being emotionally disturbed.

 

Homosexual behavior is an abstract object valued negatively. So someone please uninstall that value all he has to do is having homosexual relations repeatedly and ensure that it is public knowledge. While most repeat violation of the value, less shame will be experimenting. After repeating the violation of the value a certain number of times, no longer feel embarrassment or distress or anxiety, as the case may be. Once that outcome is reached, the person will no longer have the installed value and may have same-sex relationships without feeling aversion. Therefore he can enjoy them without being disturbed.

 

 

Changes in the System of Values of Malcon X and Barack Obama

 

Bruckman Senergicones Theory explains the way that values govern and determine the conduct of individuals. That theory was discussed very briefly in the menu under the title "sociological theory: what are the social values?" We may employ of Festinger Cognitive Dissonances Theory to explain the way in which changes may occur in the value system of society described in the Theory of the Senergicones.

 

As noted in the Theory of the Senergicones values are irrational elements of the conduct. Simply people establish emotional automatic response in the presence of abstract or concrete objects. The response is automatic and therefore irrational. As a consequence, it happens that people can install values that are inconsistent with each other. When people are confronted with those values, within its constellation of values, that are inconsistent among themselves, occur in them and will be activated in them the emotion or affective state anxiety described by Festiger cognitive dissonances. This anxiety is an unpleasant disturbing element to the body that encourages the individual to reduce his level through the act of modifying their values to make them more consistent among themselves and thus gradually reduce the level of anxiety.

 

Let see three examples of how the values determine the conduct of individuals. The concrete object "being a white person" is positively valued in our society. On the other hand the concrete object "to be a black person" is negatively valued in this society in black as well as white individuals.

 

That is why it is not frequent to find white people who want to be or appear as black people. However it is frequent to find black people who want to be or look like white people. It is the installation of that value in the psyche of people which led to Michael Jackson, Malcon X and Barack Obama to straighten hair at some point in their lives. However, in the long term there were changes in the values of Malcon X and Barack Obama that led them by a different roads than Michael Jackson.

 

 

How the Theory of the Senergicones and the Theory of Cognitive Dissonance can Explain the Changes in the System of Values of Malcon X and Barack Obama?

 

Abstract objects "equality between human beings" and "be fair" are positively valued in society. The abstract object "being a racist person" is negatively valued in society. It is almost certain that during their process of education and study, Malcon X as Barack Obama were confronted with these abstract objects that made them feel cognitive dissonance and, consequently, occurred in them a change in their system of value to make them more consistent among themselves, so that reduced cognitive dissonances and thereby emotion anxiety that is unpleasant.

 

In other words, while Michael Jackson has not changed nor modified his negative valuation of black people throughout his life, the other two certainly did. What brought this change of values in Malcon X and Barack Obama? And how can the senergicones and the cognitive dissonance theories explain these changes?

 

Both Malcon X and Barack Obama are extremely intelligent people. Perhaps for that reason they studied and were exposed to multiple visions and ideologies that led them to become aware of its origin and how the racist ideology that they had internalized oppresses them. Probably, due to his intelligence and his sensibility were confronted in his studies with the cognitive dissonance that produce the value "being a black person is bad" with the value "equality among men is good"

 

 

The belief that black people are inferior to white people is founded on the value "being black is bad". This value is in contradiction with the values "being racist is bad", "being fair is good", "be equality is good" and with the belief "all men are equal". Accordingly, an individual who is confronted with both types of values will experience cognitive dissonance that lead to generate anxiety. The generation of anxiety, while more intense, more incite it modification of one of the two types of values.

 

 

Two Different Behaviors to the Same Cituacion: Michael Jackson's history and Malcon X History

 

We have pointed out that the direction of change in the value system of individuals depends on the personality of each individual, other values of the individual and the experience of each individual.

 

The value "being black is bad", or more specifically the affective States and emotions that produced that value, was what led to Michael Jackson feel displeasure, malaise, dissatisfaction with their status of black person to the point of changing his factions with plastic surgery and to whiten the skin. Malcon X which was a person of extraordinary sensitivity and intelligence became aware of this. While he acknowledged that early in its life he smoothed his hair and felt attracted to white women, however, created awareness of it and tried to change this negative value among its people. From that decision of conscience (observation or reflection on observation) began, among others, to disseminate among their people the value "Black is beautiful". The effort made to instill this value in their own people was great. Preached it with force and conviction until it was installed in the psyche of people, not only black but also white. They were so successful that it was set in the late 1960s a fashion among white people to comb the hair in the form of Afro.

 

How the Racist Values Installed in the Psyche of the White People Will Have Been Changing Over Time? And How Can the Senergicones Theory and the Cognitive Dissonance Theory Explain these Changes?

 

From the 1960s the white population in the United States was constantly confronted with racist values that were inconsistent with other values within their constellation of values. Political activism, the work and the militancy of figures like Martin Luther King and Malcon X played a preponderant role in the confrontation of white American society with those values of its constellation of values that were inconsistent and incongruent among themselves. The cognitive dissonances did the rest, obtaining that the cause of the black minority in the United States win more and more and more followers and defenders among the majority white population in the United States.

 

The negative value "being a black person is bad" was associated in the 1960s with the positive value "equality between human beings is good" and which is also enshrined in the U.S. Constitution under the concept that all men are created equal. This partnership produced and continues to produce changes in attitudes of individuals in relation to racism in the United States, as a consequence of the cognitive dissonances described by Festiger.

 

The process is described in the following terms. Defend the right to equality between human beings is good. Black people are human beings. Therefore, defend the right to equality of black people is good. After almost 4 generations the changes are notable, despite the fact that we are still very far from achieving the ideal of a society without racism.

 

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